Spiral Galaxy M31 (NGC 224), type Sb, in Andromeda

RA 00:42.7 DEC +41:16 ; Distance 2.900.000 (!!!) lightyears.
Visual Brightness: 3.4m ; Apparent Dimension 178x63 arc minutes

M31 is the famous Andromeda galaxy, our nearest large neighbour galaxy.
For a long time people believed that the "Great Andromeda Nebula" was one of the closest nebulae and it was not recognised as a Galaxy untill 1923.
Because in 1923, Edwin Hubble found the first Cepheid variable (a star type which can be used to measure celestial distances) in the Andromeda galaxy and thus established the intergalactic distance and the true nature of M31 as a galaxy.
Because he was not aware that there are two Cepheid classes, his distance was incorrect by a factor of more than two, though. This error was not discovered until 1953, when the 200-inch Palomar telescope was completed and had started observing.
Since that time the distance is measured at 2.900 thousand light years.

Source and more: SEDS


October 30, 2009 20:13 - 21:18 UT
Imaging: William Optics Zenithstar 80 ED II APO with Meade 3.3 Focal Reducer at f/3 [focal length 240 mm], Astronomik LRGB filters; ATK16IC b/w camera, K3CCDTools.
Exposures: L: 27x60s [1x1], RGB: 10x60s [1x1]; unguided.

October 22, 2008 20:13 - 21:13 UT.
Imaging: SLR Photolens 29mm focal length piggybacked on my LX200, Astronomik LRGB filters; ATK16IC b/w camera.
Exposures: L: 5x420s [1x1]; RGB: 5x60s[2x2], unguided.

October 18, 2008 19:50 - 21:13 UT.
Imaging: SLR Photolens 135mm focal length piggybacked on my LX200, Astronomik LRGB filters; ATK16IC b/w camera.
Exposures: L 16x240s [1x1]; RGB 5x60s [2x2], unguided.

August 30, 2007 21:53 - :22:50 UT.
Imaged with 135mm SLR Photolens; Astronomik LRGB filters mounted in filterwheel; ATK16IC b/w camera, piggybacked on my LX200 with my new filterwheel-piggyback-rail
Exposures: Luminosity 23x90s; RGB 10x30s; unguided.

September 4, 2006 21:46 - 22:03 UT.
Captured with 135mm SLR Photolens piggy backed on my LX200 and Baader Infra Red Blocking Filter.
26 exposures of 40 seconds, unguided.

October 27, 2005 21:17 - 21:42 UT.
Captured with 135mm SLR Photolens and Baader Infra Red Blocking Filter.
25 exposures of 40 seconds and 13 exposures of 20 seconds, autoguided.
Post processing: as per my DSO tutorial, but I layered the 2 series exposures in an attempt to preserve more details in the core of M31.

October 5, 2005 20:13 - 20:52 UT [luminosity layer] and October 6, 2005 21:19 - 22:04 UT [colour layer].
Captured with 135mm SLR Photolens.
Full details are just below the larger image.

October 5, 2005 20:13 - 20:52 UT.
Captured with 135mm SLR Photolens and Baader Infra Red Blocking Filter.
150 exposures of 15 seconds, autoguided.
Post processing as per my DSO tutorial.

September 9, 2004 00:07 - 00:19 UT and September 9, 2004 00:42 - 00:48 UT.
Captured with 135mm SLR Photolens and Baader Infra Red blocking filter
This image is a combination of a colour image and a black/white luminosity image.
Imaging and processing procedure: see my DSO imaging page.

September 9, 2004 00:07 - 00:19 UT
M31 - Andromeda Galaxy [with M32 and M110].
Imaged with 135mm SLR Photolens and Baader Infra Red blocking filter

September 20, 2003 01:07 - 01:43 UT.
M110 is visible between M31 and the upper right hand corner.
54 x 30 seconds, VP SC3a colour camera.
Imaged with 135mm SLR Photolens and Baader Infra Red blocking filter.
YRGB post processing.

October 11, 2002 23:04 - 23:23 UT
It was not my intention to do any imaging, because I was busy in testing my setup after major maintenance to the mechanical parts (motor, gears and ball bearings) of my telescope.
Then I noticed Andromeda and decided to take a look through the eyepiece, because I had never seen a galaxy before.
After that I aimed my camera and started to image, even while my polar alignment was still off.